What are the gynecological problems that each age group should be concerned about?

Dr. Chanil Ekanayake Consultant Obstetrician and Gynecologist – Kotelawala Defence Academy Hospital

Gynecological problems in women must be viewed at various age groups.

Females in different age groups face different concerns that come with age.

  • Adolescent girls
  • Women in reproductive age group 
  • Menopausal age group

Each age group has problems unique to them.

Adolescent girls – what concerns them most?

Young girls entering puberty can face issues related to their physical changes.

In terms of gynecology, adolescent girls can have problems with puberty. There might be delay in puberty/menstruation, excessive hair growth etc.

Other problems can happen in relation to menstruation.

Some have heavy periods that might be distressing at time. Yet, some others will face delayed periods which can be a month or as long as 06 months.

This happens mostly due to hormone irregularity. A condition that can be easily treated and which will settle with time.

But also, important to keep in mind that  young girls too can have endometriosis, fibroids, polycystic ovary disease –  all of which are increasing due to an early age of menarche and also due to being exposed to toxics, as a result of today’s fast paced lifestyle.

Reproductive women – what issues do they face?

Reproductive women and their problems can be divided into two parts. This would be pregnancy related trimesters and gynecological problems.

These are commonly related to menstruation. Some might have heavy periods – heavily regular or irregular.

The other end of the spectrum is when they don’t have periods – this is called amenorrhea. 

Still others may have heavy pain with menstruation, which is called dysmenorrhea. 

This is quite normal for women in reproductive age group.

The reason to have delayed periods is often because of polycystic ovarian syndrome. (no proper eggs developed – this happens because of hormone irregularity)

There are other multiple problems that manifest such as excessive hair growth, acne, pimples etc.

Other problems like heavy bleeding can  occur due to fibroids, endometrial polyp, adenomyosis etc.

What are menopausal women’s issues ?

Menopause is a time during which women can suffer from hormonal deficiency. They will have menopausal symptoms. 

They may also have problems with osteoporosis and fractures. 

Among common problems are –
  1. Prolapse – the womb slips out of place/ comes down
  2. Incontinence – involuntary leakage of urine
  3. Higher risk of malignance

 

In such situations, there can be abnormal bleeding or abnormal vaginal discharges. Especially concerning endometrial and cervical cancer. 

Some people have nonspecific symptoms. Such as bloating, nauseating feeling, vague abdominal pain. This needs to be investigated properly because of ovarian cancers. 

They present signs very later in life.

The other problems are due to bone density. Osteoporosis and related fractures are a big problem in this age group.

In addition to that, because of the hormone deficiency, there are other conditions that pose a greater risk to this age group.

For example, diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease and strokes are much more likely to occur in menopausal women due to common deficiencies. These conditions need due attention.

 

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